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What Are the Symptoms of Emphysema?

Gross pathology of lung showing centrilobular emphysema characteristic of smoking. Closeup of fixed, cut surface shows multiple cavities lined by heavy black carbon deposits.

It is only with great effort that the person can exhale air form his lungs. There is continual breathlessness. Most any exertion brings coughing. It is hard to breath in, but worse to breathe out. The neck veins often stand out from the effort; and he breathes through the mouth in order to try to get enough air in and out. Breathing is usually rapid and short. He may breathe 25-30 times a minute, and he still does not get enough air.

Eventually his chest becomes barrel-shaped, his face ruddy, and he speaks with short and broken phrases.

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